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EEL 6509 - Wireless Communications

Dr. John M. Shea

Spring 2001


Each student in EEL 6509 is required to work on a project in the area of wireless communications. This project will count 20% of the student's class grade, although extra credit will be awarded for more-challenging projects.

The most important thing about this project is that the student does his or her own work. This does not mean that you have to redevelop everything that you study. Nor do you need to recreate simulation or analytical results. What it does mean is that all project reports and proposals should be in each student's own words, except for brief citations. All material used in the course of the project should be referenced in the style used by IEEE Transactions on Communications. IF YOU FIND MATERIAL ON THE WEB OR IN A TEXTBOOK, DO NOT PRESENT IT AS IF IT IS YOUR OWN WORDS OR YOUR OWN WORK -- I WILL FIND YOU OUT AND GIVE YOU A ZERO. You may include material from other sources where necessary, provided it is clearly that the material is another author's work and a proper citation is given. If you decide to do a simulation, you can use programs that you find on the web of in a book as long as you clearly indicate where you got them from and that they are not your own work.

I have simplified this project in the hope that each student will study something new about wireless communications and will gain some experience reading the communications literature. I recommend that the student have at least some small simulation component to their work, but that is not required.

Students are expected to select the topic for their project, but some ideas are given below. Students must submit proposals for review by the professor to ensure that the project is appropriate in terms of topic and difficulty. Students should work individually unless the project involves some significant simulation, mathematics, or analytical work.

Schedule and Grading

Proposal (30% of project grade), due Monday, April 2 (5 pt bonus for submission by Monday, March 26)

Students should submit a short (i.e., two pages maximum length ) proposal for the project. For group projects, only one proposal per group is expected. The proposal should consist of:

Cover page (not counted against page total)- include title of project, name of individual or team members, course number, and date of submission

Introduction/motivation - discuss why the project is relevant, discuss previous work in area of project, etc.
Scope of Project - discuss what you intend to do.
Expected results- discuss what you expect to learn or produce as a result of this project. For simulations and analytical work, this might be bit error rate plots, software simulators of fading, software decoders, etc. For projects that do not include these components, the expected results will probably be a paper that surveys several articles in the communications literature and compares them and/or evaluates how the proposed techniques might be used in wireless communication systems.
For team projects, discuss how each team member will contribute to the project.
References - this section is required for every proposal and must be formatted as described below. The proposal should include at least three references, not including the textbook for the class. At least one of these references should be a journal article. These should be cited in the text and documented in a bibliography in the style used in IEEE journals.

Final report (70% of project grade), due Wed., April 25

The final report should be a short (i.e, three to five pages is acceptable, more may be necessary for more-challenging projects) document describing the results of your project. The final report should consist of

Cover page, include same information as for proposal

Introduction/Motivation - may be similar to information in proposal. Modify as necessary based on work done in project. Introduce scope of project and intended applications.
Body of text - describe what work was performed. Include necessary formulas, descriptions of software, etc. Provide system diagrams if appropriate. Summarize information as necessary from references, but do not plagiarize. Do not include long derivations available in the literature, just provide citations as necessary.
Results - explain the output of your research. For simulation or analytical work, provide any figures, plots, etc. Discuss the results. Do they make sense? If you built a decoder, how did you verify that its output is correct? If you analyzed or simulated the performance of some system, how did you verify your results? For survey-type projects, discuss the various techniques that you researched. compare and contrast the techniques and their application to wireless communication systems.

Conclusions - summarize the results of the project. What did you learn? What would be some directions of future research that could come from this project?

References- include at least five references, unless you can justify that there is not that much material available in the open literature that is relevant to your project.

Appendices - include any source code, include C files, Matlab .m files, etc. If you used some other simulation package, include enough material for someone skilled with that package to recreate your system and results.
Cited materials - Provide photocopies of all journal articles cited. If books are cited, include photocopies of the pages you consulted only if that number of pages is less than 10 per book. Consult the professor if you have any questions about whether some information needs to be provided as photocopies. (For instance, there is no need to provide copies of the professor's papers!)

Project Ideas

The student may choose any project that is relevant to the class and that is reasonable in terms of difficulty for a 6000-level class. Here are some ideas for projects. Some notation to the relative difficulty of the project is included. Remember that more-challenging projects will be awarded extra credit, up to an additional 25%. If you do a very challenging project and get a good grade on it, then I will also count the project as a higher percentage of your total grade if that benefits you.

Projects involving simulation or analysis

Develop a fading simulator. For instance, develop a Rayleigh and/or Rician fading simulator based on Jakes method. (very challenging) Or consider even more general fading models, such as Nakagami-m. (very challenging)

Create a realistic signal simulator for one of the following standards: IS-54, IS-95, GSM, WCDMA, cdma2000, 802.11. The goal is to simulate as accurately as possible the signal produced by one of these systems. You only need to focus on one link if forward-link and reverse-link transmissions differ. You should simulate a simple demodulator to help verify that the signal is correct, but you do not need to build decoders, etc. (less challenging $\rightarrow$ challenging, depending on level of detail)

Simulate an adaptive equalization scheme, such as an MMSE equalizer.

Investigate propagation models in the literature. Build a simulator that generates signals according to a model you select.

Use simulations or analysis to determine the effects of co-channel interference for more-realistic propagation models than the one considered in the book.

Simulate a direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DS-SS) system. Determine the bit error rate (BER) and compare your results to the Gaussian approximation. You may assume equal powers and simple modulation (BPSK or QPSK) with no error-control coding. (less challenging)

Simulate a DS-SS system with unequal powers in the received signals. Use successive interference cancellation to improve the BER for weaker signals. Compare your results with and without interference cancellation, and compare the results with the Gaussian approximation. (more challenging)

Simulate M-PSK or M-DPSK transmission. Compare your results to the exact expressions. (This may require implementing some rudimentary numerical integration techniques, as the exact expressions are not in closed form.) (moderately challenging)

The use of differential PSK causes error events to become correlated. Errors tend to occur in bursts of length two. Discuss why this occurs. Use simulations to determine the probability of a ``double error event''. Compare your results to analytical expressions found in the literature. (moderately challenging for BPSK, more challenging for M-PSK).

The standard differential PSK demodulator operates on two symbols at a time. Better demodulation can be achieved by operating on blocks of more than two symbols. This is multiple-symbol differential detection and can use maximum-likelihood sequence-estimation (MLSE) techniques. These techniques can be applied for noncoherent or coherent detection. Simulate the performance of DPSK with this type of demodulator. (very challenging)
Implement a Viterbi decoder for convolutional or trellis codes. Test your decoder by simulating its performance for an additive white Gaussian noise channel. (more challenging $\rightarrow$ very challenging)

Implement software that can find the Hamming distances, Euclidean distance, and/or product distances for convolutional or trellis codes. Don't just find the minimum of these distances, but provide a distance profile. (Note that there are an infinite number of possible error paths for these codes, so just provide a summary up to some reasonable distance that will be code-dependent). Discuss your results and how they apply to different channels. (more challenging $\rightarrow$ extremely challenging, depending on how general your software is, which distances you consider, how many codes you consider).

Implement a maximum a posteriori (MAP) decoder for convolutional codes that provides a posteriori probabilities at the outputs. Discuss how this decoder could be used for decoding turbo codes. (challenging)

Implement a decoder for binary BCH codes (less challenging)

Implement a decoder for Reed-Solomon codes (more challenging)

Implement a Chase decoder for BCH or Reed-Solomon codes (extremely challenging)

Implement an iterative decoder for simple turbo product codes. Use very short codes for the constituent codes, so that soft-decision decoding can be done through correlating the received word against all possible code words. Plot error rates vs. number of iterations. (very challenging)
Simulate the performance of a frequency-hop multiple access system that employs BFSK and Reed-Solomon coding. Do not actually implement the Reed-Solomon coding, but instead use well-known formulas that predict the number of symbol errors that can be corrected. Discuss how side information could be used to improve the performance by erasing some symbols. (challenging)

Explain the concept of entropy. Implement some simple source compression schemes. (less challenging)

Survey-type Projects

Projects with no simulation or analytical component are acceptable, provided the student demonstrates significant knowledge of the systems or techniques that they study. For instance, the student should be able to compare results from different journal articles and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of various schemes.

Compare multiuser detection schemes for CDMA communications. Evaluate whether they are appropriate for mobile, wireless communications.
Compare equalization schemes. Evaluate whether they are appropriate for mobile, wireless communications.
Compare the new multiple antenna transmission schemes, sometimes referred to as multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) schemes, such as BLAST, space-time coding, etc. Evaluate whether they are appropriate for mobile, wireless communications.
Present in detail some significant aspects of the communications systems used in ADSL, Bluetooth, HDTV, or one of the third-generation cellular communication systems (cdma2000, WCDMA, etc.).
Present in detail the encoding and decoding schemes for low-density parity-check codes. Discuss the performance of these codes. Evaluate whether they are appropriate for mobile, wireless communications.
Examine applications of various signal processing techniques to wireless communications. This could include various adaptive processing techniques, spectral analysis, EM algorithm, etc.


You may find the following reference material to be useful to you. I will offer some very short-term loans of some of my books and journals. The primary sources of information for this project will probably be books and IEEE journals, magazines, and conference proceedings. The most relevant IEEE publications are:

IEEE Transactions on Communications
IEEE Communications Magazine
IEEE Personal Communications Magazine
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Military Communications
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Vehicular Technology
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Global Communications
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications
Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory
The magazines are probably a good source of project ideas. The journals and proceedings provide detailed research results. These can currently be searched using IEEE Xplore at Another good way to find information about a particular area is to use the Ei Compendex Web Search Page at .

Here are some books that might be particularly useful:

Other Details

If any part of your project has been used for another class or if your project is an extension of work done for another class, please indicate clearly what is new in your project submitted for this class.

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EEL 6509 - Wireless Communications

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